Greek Italy – Una Una Fatstsa Razz

Much of Southern Italy was colonized by Greeks 2500 years ago, and these areas form what we know today as Magna Greece (Great Greece). As a result, Southern Italy became a center of Greek culture, music, and language for hundreds of years. In the past, Greece has also held the Romans and Italians. To this day, we see the Greek influence in Italy, and Italian influence in Greece, through architecture, music, food and language. For example, the city of Naples was founded by the Greeks, and its name derives from the Greek Nea Polis (New City).
Naples was also grechaskamovnym town until the 9th century BC. This ancient city with a ‘secret abandoned’ underground city, where there are many original city walls, and even the Greek-Roman theater where the famous Emperor Nero played the opera! The underground city can be visited on guided tours organized by Napoli Sottateranea – “Napoli Underground”. At Bellini square in the center you can also see some Greek ruins of the original gorada.Agrygenta, Sicily, famous for Valle dei Temp (Valley of the Temples), one of the most important archaeological sites in the world, and with the & # 39 is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Agryzhenta near the main city center, there are many Doric Greek temples, including the Temple of Hercules, Temple of Zeus, and the Temple of Concord. Sicilian town of Siracusa was also an ancient Greek city. The Greeks arrived here in 734 BC and named a small island in Syracuse Artygiya the title “Ports”, the Greek word for ‘quail’, as it took the form of “quail”. (How did they know what it looked like from above …?) They also built various temples, such as the Temple of Apollo Pankaj and the temple of Athena on the central square. They also built the fountain “Aretusa”, named after the legendary nymph “Aretusa”, which is now with the & # 39 is the “party” for local youth. In addition, in the main center of Syracuse, they built the biggest theater in Sicily.
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With many areas of Southern Italy for many years, they spoke Greek (Naples spoke Greek to the 9th century), so in some accents or dialects in the south can be found the influence of the Greeks. However, the Greek language as a whole is very different, but there are a few words that remain. Since the Romans also occupied Greece, some of the words could also be made to the Greek language by the Romans ….. and cry Grekanichnyya – a language spoken by the Italians living in the region Baveziya Calabria, and can be described as an Italian-Greek pazhynkav . These languages ​​are dying out, and for their protection law was passed, although some believe that it may be too late.
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Greek, Arabic and Spanish influence in the south-Italian music can be heard when listening to different pieces of music and songs, both modern and traditional, for example. Marie Neapolitan artist Nino D & # 39; Angel. In the traditional South-Italian and Greek music used similar tools, such as the mandolin (similar to the Greek bouzouki) and tamburela (tambourine), which is a & # 39 is the most important instrument of percussion instruments in the musical tradition of Italy. Initially “tamburela” was introduced via Greek influence in southern Italy, as well as through the Arabic influence in Sicily. Tarantella – famous traditional South-Italian dance and is directly connected with the ritual of the cult of Dionysus (god of wine and patron) of ancient Greece. It is named after the tarantula spider. Approximately in the 16th and 17th centuries, people were poisoned by deadly tarantula bites of tarantulas Licosa, and it was believed that they can be cured only by the Var & # 39; yatskih dance.
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The dance began to usual tact, and then gradually accelerated. The victim put itself in the “trans” and dancing in ecstasy, until they run out. Once they are exhausted and slow down, it will be perceived as a sign that they are cured. It is obvious that the Greek influence on the history and the music exists in areas Magna-Greece, where talk Grieco and Grekanika.
Greek and South-Italian cuisine have much in common. This is primarily due to the fact that they are located in two areas of the Mediterranean & # 39; I placed very close to each other, which have a similar climate and soil … as a result they use and grow similar products, for example. olives and olive oil, eggplant, zucchini, peppers, garlic and tomatoes. This in turn results in similar dishes and recipes. However, in some south Italian cuisine has a Greek influence, and vice versa, due to historical factors; Greek occupation in Southern Italy, and Roman occupation in Greece.
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For example, when the Romans occupied Greece, many Greek tutors were working in seven wealthy Roman & # 39; pits for their children, as well as Greek chefs for their kitchens … Other dishes to compare – it Parmigiyana Neapolitan dish moussaka Greeks (both dishes include a multilayer similar ingredients such as aubergines, tomato sauce and cheese), pepperonata of companies with salads Greeks, many psytav (salad of roasted peppers with olives) and melanzana companies – sharpeta (also know as melanzane-Burkett) forGreeks & # 39; melitzanes papoutsakia (stuffed eggplant, half – Italian and Greek sock papuoutsakia means “shoes”, indicating how they look).
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It is therefore not surprising that the Italians and the Greeks have a saying “Una Faccia Una Razza” (pronounced una fatsa una razza in Greek)! (Translated literally, it means “one face one race” means similarity and history of Greece and Italy.)
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Lesotho – "Kingdom in the sky '

South Africa surrounded from all sides, but separated from it huge Drakensberg mountain ranges and small, mountain kingdom Lesotho small and rounded shape, disposed on the plateau over 2881 feet (1000 meters), with peaks which reach heights of over 10,000 ft (3000 m). Sani Pass – an exciting entry point into Lesotho from Drakensberg National Park in South Africa and with the & # 39 is the gateway to the colorful route “Roof of Africa”, which connects the magnificent scenery of the two mountain ranges.
The people called the “Kingdom in the sky”, is characterized by an elevated hill majestic mountain scenery, fresh mountain air and silence simple traditional way of life. Pony pony – one of the best ways to test Nagore & # 39; I Lesotho. The time spent in remote villages Basota, scattered among the grassy hills where waterfalls saturate the surrounding rocks mist rainbow colors and crystal-clear streams, crossing the landscape.
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This region is also ideal for those who prefer to experience their own foot to two feet, with milyanami single landscapes in order to assess the abundance of trout in the rivers and dams, and a guarantee of a warm and friendly welcome in a solid. mountain farm. The Central Highlands & # 39; and is the highest waterfall in southern Africa, Maletsunyane Falls near Semonkong, which means “place of smoke” that thunders from a height of 624 feet (192 m) and a & # 39 is the most spectacular in the summer rainy season .
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From the heights of the mountains small land down the western lowlands, where all the major cities and where two-thirds of the population live. Capital Musser – a fascinating city contrasts modern and traditional lifestyles. Dressed blankets riders leave the traffic jams on the way to the market, and woven products are demonstrated on a busy sidewalk near the new glass buildings filled samavazhnymi office workers.
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Time spent in Lesotho, will allow visitors to watch the African country, filled with extraordinary appeal, the Kingdom of durable beauty and unchanging culture, which is natural and does not affect tourism in many ways.
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Conditions outside & # 39; I was in Lesotho vary greatly depending on the altitude. Summer – hot, rainy season from October to April, with the hottest days in January and February, and most rain falls in March-May and October-November. Sunny day, day electrical storms, and the temperature ranges below 86 ° F (30 ° C) in hollows with prahaladneyshay temperature when the height is increased, on average around 64 ° F (18 ° C) in the mountains.
Snow falls mostly in the winter from May to September, but it may be in the mountains in any season. Winter can be bitterly cold, particularly in vysakagor & # 39; e, typically days but clear and sunny. The temperature can drop to 20 ° F (-7 ° C) in the valleys and 0 ° F (-18 ° C) in vysakagor & # 39; e. At any time of year the weather & # 39; e can change very fast in the highlands from warm sunshine to fog, rain and frost.
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Come for a visit.


when traveling tips

“All my bags are packed, I’m ready to go …”

You’re going to go, so you check everything that you need to bring: a ticket, money, clothes, hmmm ….. I forgot something? Then maybe you’ll start to wonder: What if … I do not like the food, running out of money are lost …? Well, what if you have to prepare yourself for the unexpected things that can possibly happen during the trip? Learn about some of the nasty things that can happen during the time of travel, and advice on their use.
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(1) cultural differences:

You are in Greece and you were treated to dinner Greek family & # 39; and. They give you a plate of food that can actually make you full. Once you’re done eating, they refill your empty plate of food. Trying to be polite, you do everything possible to make it all complete. And after that the owner refills your plate! What are you going to do? Try to be polite and destroy everything again? Hey, rest other. Do not be too hard to imagine! For grechatsav absurd to leave the guest with an empty plate, so every time they see your empty plate, they will fill up the plate. Then what to do to show that you are full? Just leave the food on the plate. Is not it simple?

* Tip: The knowledge and study of the culture specific place in front of her visit is very important. Reading a book about it, browsing the internet, or simply asking your friend, who was there, will be very useful to make a shameful moment in the fine.

(2) Lost Translation:

“Wow, I’m in Japan!” You are very excited to face the first day in Japan. You turn on the TV, and all programs in Japanese. You go for a walk; all the characters in the Japanese language. You go to the restaurant, the menu in Japanese. If you request a bill, the waiter gives you a bottle of beer in his stead. (The Japanese are sometimes confused “I” and “d”). Then you realize that you are in a difficult situation. No you can not understand, and you no one can understand. Aaaaarh!

* Tip: Learn the simple expressions, such as “Can you help me?” or “What is it?” in the language of the country you are visiting. Bring a dictionary. Make the most of all that is around you: pictures in the magazine, the things that you carry in your bag, and even parts of your body to communicate.

(3) Money matters:

You’re in Lombok after traveling from Yogyakarta and Bali, when you learn that in your pocket is not enough money. Or maybe you’re in Sweden, you are surprised to find that everything debit card so you can withdraw some money from an ATM or credit card, and you can still make purchases using it. But hey, you do not want to go home to flat broke, do not you?

* Tip: Plan your spending. Find information about local prices from the Internet. Bring extra cash in case of emergency. If you really have to use your credit or debit card, use it wisely.

(4) Power Mood:

You go to a restaurant and order something from the menu. But if the food comes, you wonder what it’s like to eat in Fear Factor and the taste is not to your taste.

* Tip: Bring instant food just in case, if you can not eat local food. But if the place you want to visit, do not allow you to Australia, just to try to & # 39; to eat the food that you are given. Just remember that when the natives are with him & # 39; there, you can also & # 39; have it. This way or another, is not poisonous.

If you have a special diet restrictions due to your religion or health, or you are a vegetarian, you do not need to worry about food. Just make sure that you inform the responsible person or write down what kind of food you want to get (vegetarian, Muslim, Hindu or Buddhist) in the form of diet restrictions, when you confirm your trip.

If you are traveling with a Muslim in other countries, be careful with sausages, meatballs and meat. Although the seller says they are made of beef or chicken, the meat is usually mixed with pork, as in some countries pork is much cheaper than beef or chicken. In some places, even in Europe, you can easily find the sign of “halal”. But if you can not sign and not sure what to eat, you can with the & # 39; to eat sea food or vegetarian food. Just be prepared to open your mind and try new foods. Believe me, they are also delicious.

(5) Patient meaning:

You are traveling abroad. When you wake up in the morning, you have a headache and fever. So you decide to take medication and rest. After a day you do not improve, you decide to go to the hospital and seek medical advice. But if you get to the hospital, they do not want you to take. Oh my God …! What’s the problem?

* Tip: Whenever you travel abroad, it is important to provide themselves with insurance covering all the things that may arise during your trip, such as sick. Without insurance, most hospitals will not receive you. To be safe, better to buy a coverage on some money that you disconnect on purchases. You never know what might happen, is not it?

(6) The complexity of directions:

You are in some place in Java. Late at night, and you return to the hotel after a meeting with a friend in a shopping center nearby. The first five minutes you are sure how to go. But then you start to get confused, because, it seems, got lost. If you ask someone on the street, you zbyantezhytsesya, as this man is showing you the way, using the directions on the basis of the compass: just go west for about 100 meters, then turn to the north, and the building will be to the east of you.

* Tip: if you go to Bali, west, central and eastern regions of Java, make sure you know enough about the direction by compass. Or you can buy a map. Then study it and always bring it with me, No matter where you go. In an emergency, if you get lost and you need to ask someone to the instructions, you can ask the person to show you the way, using the map.

(7) The problem of theft:

You for shopping in Hong Kong. If you are going to pay for your purchases, you realize that your wallet has disappeared! You lost money and passport. Day, which should be happy for you, turns into horrible.

* Tip: Before traveling, always remember to make a copy of all important documents for you – passport, insurance and tickets. Put a copy in your luggage, and the originals – in a bag or backpack, so if a thief steals your documents, you still have a copy. If you lose your passport, you need to inform the embassy or consulate of your country.

Talk to the airline that the thief also purchased your ticket. Returning to his country, you can talk to a responsible person with the insurance company about your problem and the additional amount of money that you spent there because of this problem. If such an incident are included in their compensation, the insurance company will pay you money depending on the type of insurance that you have – silver, gold or platinum.

Thus, willing to travel and experience new things now? What if after all that you do to avoid all possible problems mentioned above, the unexpected still happens? Well, just smile and try as best as possible to enjoy the holiday. And when you come back to reality, you can say to someone, “You will not believe what happened to me in the past a holiday!”


Guides, whom I knew

Like I'm a novelist. I have written a terrorist thriller called "The Nine Lives of too much" and restless, modern paranormal story called "The Demon in our dreams." In a short time I have a new novel, which deals with rice queens. Most of my fictional efforts shifted to my site – Every now and then I like to go back to my beginning as a traveler. I especially enjoy writing journey with humor with peramyazhovkay. My novel "The Demon in our dreams" – is, in fact, a stranger novel, which collected a lot of guides.

Heard any good guides lately?

On the tour of Alaska, our guide said, "We have a proverb in Alaska Every woman has nine men Chances are good, but the goods – strange…"

But guides men affected in this battle of the sexes. One man said he had a T-shirt with the inscription: "Girls, remember, when you get to the lower forty-eight, you'll be ugly again."

The next day, another leader Alyaskanskaga men: "Here in Alaska men – men and women, too."

Every time I get to a new city on a journey or at the new port on a cruise ship, I spend an orientation tour with a guide. They are called cultural orientations when they stop at the museum, rather than on the market of crafts, where relatives of the guide work.

Guides can tell jokes, promote, let goats, recite poetry and tell believers. They have a captive audience for a few hours, a day, and in some cases for a week or more. Somehow guides in Alaska & # 39 are the best. Here are a few illustrations of the breed from all over:

On Moorea, Tahiti's sister island, our guide Ben said:

"This church, where members worship a particular faith. They come to the door to me two or three times a week with pamphlets. Please give me your address so I can give them them, and they can visit your home instead of my" " .

Alaskan guides full of stories about the bald eagle and the bear. One guide told us about the black bear that wandered into the airport and the arrival zone. He sat on the baggage carousel and started to go through it. They thought they got rid of it by turning off the carousel. He growled and acted threateningly, so they had to let him continue to ride until the hunters did not take him into a trap and was taken away.

The guide told the story:

"Two bears, a man and a woman is attacked and eaten two men who went camping in the woods One man -. Pole, and one -. Czech Two bears hunters shot were conducted autopsy Pole was found in women, so that they know.. that the Czech in the men. "

On the ship, the princesses in Alaska when we had a martini in the nearest room, the captain would come in PA "This is Captain Glyug from the bridge From the port from the highest tree there are two bald eagles he will announce Fifteen minutes later:.." On average, a tree, again on the port side, you will see two more bald eagles. "

Our waitress said: "I think the captain has a picture of two eagles pasted on the glasses If he looks out the corner of his eyes, he sees them on the trees.".

Kamedyk the ship would imitate the captain, "to starboard get three killer whale, seven jumps jumping, and three sea otters with calves, floating on an iceberg on the port side, two grizzly bear wash salmon on the shore of the water, and there are two bald eagles. that Princess line to pay to follow the ship in Seward. "

Guides can give different versions of the same. On Bora Bora in French Polynesia a huge abandoned Hyatt hotel with a single foundation stands on the beach. The local guide said that the reason for the refusal of the hotel was because of the greed of builders and management costs, vaccination and corruption.

Anthropologist Bill Kolans about Raiatea gave a different version. Polynesians never give up their land. Relatives often hide the yard, which helps to ensure that the land will remain in the family & # 39; and. After the "Hyatt" builders assembled the land for their hotel, hundreds of Bora Bora made claims to the land. Buy them all would be terribly expensive, so the project was abandoned.

The tours of French Polynesia resentment against Chinese kramshchykav address. "There's such and such a supermarket. It is owned by the Chinese, and the products there expensive." The Chinese, who originally brought to Tahiti to work in the sugar fields remaining after the work on the fields stopped. They gradually become a merchant class and now have a number of banks and enterprises.

One Tahitian guide said: "The French bake our bread, the Chinese deliver it and sell, and taitsyane pay for it."

In Bora Bora one tour guide annoyed when a tourist asked him not eat them dogs. Paul Theroux in his book on Oceania found that some islanders in some archipelago eat dog. He thought that the island dogs often seem so hardened, so we knew what to expect. Our guide said: "Of course, we would not eat dogs They are our pets, family members & # 39; and what you think we are savages..?"

Then his whole mood has changed dramatically, and he playfully said: "Now the Americans, that's another story They're really delicious, especially the fingers We call this food fingers…"

Captain Cook detail hundreds of years ago began to cannibalism in the South Seas.

Alaska tour guides specializing in poetry recitation at the end of the tour. Their favorite with & # 39 is Robert Service Kipling Yukon, and on many bus tours before you give feedback, you will hear the "Shooting of Dan McGrew", "The Cremation of Sam McGee" or "Spell of the Yukon." "They read from the memory, and somehow seem more direct line, if you are traveling overseas for border cities like Skagway.

We took the train steam engine in old railway carriages, which are moved in the footsteps of the gold rush from Skagway through the mountains to the place of take-off in Dawson. In 1898, the terrible conditions endured thousands of gold seekers, and thousands of animals died schooling. After a loud speaker to train a female tour guide read from the account of Jack London, who brazenly told how these animals fell or were thrown through the steep mountain trails.

In Skagvagu our guide took us to the old cemetery where is buried Soapy Smith and Frank Reid. Soapy Smith was the leader of a gang that terrorized the city during the Gold Rush. Reid shot soap, and on his grave – the inscription, which is written, that he gave his life for the honor of Skagway. Nearby is the tomb of a woman of pleasure. On her tombstone is written: "She gave her life for the honor of Skagway."

In Hamburg, Germany, the guide trumpeted patriotic environment at work. In the first quarter of the infamous red light district on Reperbane he noted that some of the women he said were prostitutes. "It's good for them. They save precious energy. They go to work."

I have met a lot of good guides for years, and I laughed at him and learned from most of them.


Hello from Austria – medieval history in the fortress near Rygersburg and research Styria

Coming from my day yesterday, which included a photo safari in my hometown, extreme hiking and subsequent culinary feast (to counter any potential weight loss), my last day in Austria had arrived, and it too will be irresistible. My brother-in-law and my Evaldo Anelis planned to travel to one of these medieval treasures of Styria: Rygersburg, majestic castle, which was first built in the 11th century in a strategically important border region of the Austrian Empire.

Styria – one of the less well-known Austrian provinces; most people are more familiar with around the capital Vienna; a region that surrounds Salzburg (country "Sound of Music") and Tyrol with its high mountains and its capital Innsbruck. Styria, while the second largest Austrian province, which has the second largest city in the country (its capital, Graz), remains largely below the radar of most tourists in North America.

As for me, this is one of the most beautiful places, and I do not say that just because I'm from there. In fact, one of the obvious goals of my trip to Austria, this year has been to view the area in which I grew up through the eyes of writer-traveler, and to put it in context with some other areas that I have had the chance to visit in the past few years.

Styria consists of eight major travel regions:

– Dachstein – Tauern characterized by high mountains, perfect skiing and other diversions outdoors

– colorful lake area of ​​the Salzkammergut – Asserland

– Murtala recreation area, densely green belt that offers many active outdoor activities

– Upper Styria, another mountainous region, which presents "Water Path Styria", "iron path Styria", as well as the mountainous region Hochschwab

– Graz, capital of the province, on the & # 39; UNESCO World Heritage Site and the European Capital of Culture 2003

– Eastern Styria, my native region, a charming area characterized by mountains of medium size, the largest mountain pastures of Austria, gardens, fertile farmland, monasteries and castles

– Termenland Styria, a region rich hills, vineyards and ancient volcanic activity that created six resorts world-caliber, and

– The wine region of Southern Styria and western Styria, where gentle hillside full of vineyards, and the famous White Horse, intended for the Vienna Riding School, are invited to the area, which is often called the "Austrian Tuscany".

Today's destination Rygersburg located directly at the southern border of the tourist region of Eastern Styria, close to the volcanic region of the field Termenland. In fact, the fortress itself was built on an ancient volcanic cone long-extinct volcano. We started with Wise travel through the valley of the Raab and rural town Gleysdorf. There, we & # 39; went to the main road on smaller country roads that took us through the beautiful hills, among which there are many orchards and vineyards.

Many of the small side roads – is the official bike paths that are easy to sign, and many local winegrowers have small rural restaurant called "Buschenschenken", whose garden terraces invite hikers, cyclists and other travelers to sit and admire shtyryyanskimi culinary delicacies and wine. We almost collided with the movement, and in this beautiful warm summer day many cyclists were there well, exercising and enjoying the scenery.

After about 45 minutes we reached our destination: in front of us was a basaltic rock, crowned by the majestic fortress Rygersburg. We parked the car in the village at the foot of the cliff and stood under the & # 39; the volume of the lock. The narrow road has no pavement and is essentially composed of dark volcanic rock, which has a lot of narrow ditches and ruts of hundreds of years of using horse-drawn carriages. We went through the first gate, which was one of many. Just Rygersburgu have seven main gates and eleven bastions. Defensive wall around the fortress is impressive three kilometers. The combination of these features has made the most important fortress on the border of Styria strengthening of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

The strategic importance of this border region becomes apparent in the context of the Ottoman wars of the 16th and 17th century between the Habsburg monarchy and the Ottoman Empire. In particular, the region of Eastern Styria, often under the threat of the invading forces from the East. In 1664 in nearby Mogersdorf took decisive final battle, which ended a two-year war against the Turks. Sam Rygersburg not been conquered, and as a result he was named "the most strongly fortified of Christianity." He was part of a series of border fortresses along the border of the Habsburg Empire.

We walked slowly to the castle on the beaten track, surrounded by the twisted wall, which would allow archers to aim at potential invaders, who were approaching the fortress. On the open plateau at the actual castle building a wall mounted numerous boards, representing a memorial to hundreds of men from the surrounding villages who were killed during the Second World War. Each village had its own board. Another colorful gates led us to the last part of the path that would lead us to the fortress. At the foot of the fortress is "Burtavern", a restaurant with a nice large outdoor patio with a magnificent view of the surrounding countryside and offended the traditional Austrian cuisine.

As we approached the fortress itself, we crossed two roar, which were equipped with a & # 39; omnym bridge, and the second inner moat is actually still had water in it. Now we really were inside the building complex of the fortress and through the large patio we come to the central building, which houses the trading shop where we purchased 9.5 euros entrance to the central part of the fortress.

Name Riegersburg fortress was originally mentioned in 1138 as the "Ruotkerspurch", which actually means "Ryudygera lock", so the fortress originally belonged to this arystakratse under that name. At the end of capital reconstruction was carried out of the 16th century, to include monuments of the late Renaissance. Large ceremonial room and arcade in the courtyard date from this era.

In Rygersburgu are two permanent exhibitions: "Witch Museum" in the basement of the focus on compulsion and persecution of witches, which covered Central Europe approximately from 1450 to 1750 About 300 alleged witches and sorcerers were persecuted in trials. the Styrian and many of them were shot. Peak Var & # 39; hunting yatstva witch fell on the 30-year war from 1618 to 1648, when the war and the so-called "little ice age" destroyed agriculture and the discharge of the population, most of which, of course, was to blame on the evil alleged witches .

We had planned to see another show: "The legendary Rygersburg – Legendary Women". Two very colorful female characters associated with the history of the fortress. The first was the Baroness Elisabeth Katharina von Haller (1607 of 1672), which was the lady of the castle from 1648 to 1672. In times of very traditional male-female roles expectation "Galleryn" had a very unconventional character and excluded from the normal rules. Women, even aristocratic women at the time were not allowed to own property, and Elizabeth, as the sole heir to the fortress, would have to abandon any property of her husband, but she refused to perform it. Even in the marriage agreement she ensured the right to decide on their own property.

Baroness Elisabeth von Galler initiated a complete reconstruction of the fortress, which included a stunning baroque White Hall, as well as the construction of the numerous bastions, gates and large walls that surround the castle. Several inscriptions on the various gates show that she spent a lot of money on the construction work. Her husband was a great debt, and in 1649 it paid him a large sum of money and lost it. In general, Baroness von Galler was married three times and has participated in a number of legal battles with their spouses and the local clergy.

Another interesting woman, presented at the exhibition "Legendary Women" – Katarina Paldauf, who was an employee of the Baroness von Haller, who started working on 20 years of age. From 1673 to 1675 she went to court over the Witch Feldbaha and accused of manipulating out & # 39; and it participated in witch Saturdays. Legends also say that it is skillfully to grow roses in the winter, a talent that earned her the nickname: ". Flower witch" "Thanks to their supernatural abilities to grow flowers in the offseason, she was accused of witch and presumably was executed in 1675.

Various exposition also shed light on the historical background of the 16th and 17th centuries. Sluzhatstva and feudalism characterized the power structure of the Middle Ages, and the peasants were very complicated life, while aristocrats formed a hereditary elite that had the right to occupy the land and carry out far-reaching powers over ordinary people. Basically agrarian economy while obliges farmers to transfer a significant proportion of its products to local rulers and nobleman, who, in turn, promised them protection in times of war. It was the era of the general operation and gentlemen had the right to use the peasant land at their own discretion. Often the farmer demanded permission lord, when he was going to marry, and heavy taxes were introduced in the peasant class. These stringent conditions actually led to numerous peasant revolts throughout Central Europe in the 16th century.

Shlyahettsy on the other hand were a way of life. The inscription at the entrance to the fortress indicates that excessive feast of 1600-ies. Was the cause of food and drink for 21 days. Smartly decorated with the Knights' Hall was the site of many of these fights, and the wooden bridge that connects it to another room, used to free myself after all this care and is usually called the "vomit bridge". Even today, the human figure, bent under the bridge, reminds people of their original purpose.

We were delighted by the lush details in the former living quarters Rygersburga, in particular, in the Hall of Knights finished ceiling and superbly decorated with baroque White Hall. When we were on the premises, in the White Hall were still decorating the wedding tables and balances, which occurred a few days earlier in the fortress. Today the castle belongs to the family & # 39; and Liechtenstein aristocratic family & # 39; and who lives in the castle since 1972. One of the family members & # 39; and recently married. Beautiful decorations for flowers and wedding menus gave us an idea of ​​how were to look like some of these historic feasts.

We enjoyed our lesson first hand and were ready to continue studying, so we went down the long road to the city of basalt Rygersburg that spreads at the foot of the fortress. Baroque church and several restaurants attached colorful main square of the village and on the outskirts of the village – a large pond, which has a resort with beach volleyball, bitter, tennis and eateries.

Then we continued our journey to the big country to the next destination: Kapfenshteyn Castle, about 20 minutes from Rygersburga, it is also located on an extinct volcano near the Hungarian and Slovenian borders. Its recorded history dates back to the year 1065 and was one of the fortresses that defended Austria from the raids of the Hungarians and Turks. The castle belonged to the gentry seven different & # 39; and until it came into the possession of the family & # 39; and Winkler-Germaden in 1898.

Today, the castle is located a 15-room hotel is a hotel and a restaurant with large outdoor courtyard, providing a stunning view of the surrounding area. We chose the perfect place on the terrace and began to study the menu. Wedding, obviously just happened in the castle hotel, as the bride and groom are still transported gifts for their cars. We decided to try the local delicacies, and I liked my mushroom soup with roasted buckwheat and cheese plate with a wide range of Austrian specialty cheeses.

Our late lunch was stretched to the south, and it is time to continue our journey. But before moving on, we spent a short walk through the woods and vineyards in a small chapel on the plateau near the castle Kapfenshteynam. Hence, we had a beautiful view of the north, and through a magnifying viewer we could see our previous destination, volcanic cone Rygersburga.

It's time to go back, so we started to drive back to Vaice. We agree with our friends Luis and Isabella, to join them on a small plot in my last night in Austria. Both of my friends are avid riders and Luis allowed me to jump on one of their two-wheeled vehicles and accompanied me on a little test drive. The first time I rode a bike on the island of Ibiza and only was delighted to once again go for it. After some initial problems with balancing after getting used to regulate the gas handle, we finally started to adequately begin our little adventure and the enthusiastic delight of local country roads.

Twenty minutes later, we came back and sat in their beautiful garden, admiring the large pond, which they have created. We're all a little reminiscing about the time in 2005, when my brother, my son in law, and these two members came to visit Toronto. It was the first time I saw his friends again, this time on their home. We even thought that one of these years, we have to hold a joint vacation on skis in Schladming on the Upper Styria, a phenomenal ski area, which is often a & # 39 is a cross-country skiing World Cup and the place where my friends regularly go skiing.

The sun was setting, and it's time to return to the place of his brother, and start to pack your suitcase. I said goodbye to his friends and invited them to come to the next visit to Toronto. I Evaldo, Anelis spent a few pleasant hours in their house, when I was preparing for my opinion on the & # 39; Congress, feeling very sad because of the rapid end of his trip.

Without a doubt, this is my best visit since I left my hometown 21 years ago. Nine days just was not long enough to even explore the sights of my neighbor's area. In addition to the excellent links with the family & # 39; It and a few good friends, I spent the last few days found that Styria, the region where I was born, there was, of course, along with many other tourist areas that I have visited throughout North America and Europe. .

Beautiful scenery of Styria, opportunities for outdoor recreation, architecture, history, music, culture and, last but not least, delicious cuisine will definitely make me come back again.


Travel – the best education you can get

Reviewing our lives and the decisions that we have taken here, we thought it was about the journey that changed us so many ways. Then the mother cousin hit the nail on the head when she told us at a family gathering (knowing that we have visited in the world), that journey – the best education you can get. Although my wife and I already suspected that it happened, we had a man who actually lived and confirmed our suspicions.

"I have memories that will remain with me as I traveled in 60 years, and friends who still keep in touch," – she said. "I saw so much and learned a lot of things that you would never have learned in school and did not look at the TV. Continue the journey, as long as you still up. I congratulate you."

And bearing in mind these words of wisdom, we delve into our personal experiences to explain why travel – this is the best education.

deep impression

It's one thing to see something on TV or read it in the paper (or on the Internet or in books, or any of your favorite media), but another thing to see these things in person. More often than not, if you talk about something, you can hardly estimate his message and is likely to react (or not) briefly, and then forget about it soon. But if you have seen an explosion or encounter with the poor is not hearsay, these moments stick with you, and you begin to wonder why these things happen.

For example, at school you can try to teach students revolutions, repeating what is in the history books, citing factors such as, for example, the population was 95% illiteracy, the rich become richer and the poor weakened and dejected population. no opportunities to escape poverty. I am sure that the students can remember some dates and some of the major figures of history, but after the test or training is forgotten, and the effects of the causes and consequences of the conditions leading to the revolution, are lost.

But if these students may have attended (or better yet remained in the family & # 39; s) without the family & # 39; and running water, electricity, schools and the lack of food, if they really work to survive; All this time the government hide deep dissatisfaction bribe receiving, storing most of the wealth of the country and even the arrival and dams or logging mine coal (thereby putting more pressure on their own land and affecting the survival of its own funds), perhaps these students will be so deeply moved by the experience that they can better understand why people want to act and experience to improve their situation.

This is the essence of why deep impression, you can get just experiencing things first hand while traveling, – it is one of the main reasons for travel – the best education you can get. Perhaps even more important is that such impressions have been with you to the extent that you are more likely to want to take action to change things for the better.

emission theory

We have always believed that reality – it is the fastest and most efficient teacher. If you buy a starter sale at deeply discounted price at some street market only to start the collapse on you when you get home, you do not learn again to look at the markets starting in the same way. But while you will not have to break the bitter taste, you will always look for the next big offer, no matter how tricky the supplier.

If you go there, you most likely will witness the places where socialism has been successful (and not so evil as to believe gong-ho prakapitalisty and industrialists), you are more likely to assess how other people around the world (especially in Europe) do not worry what about health insurance and health care, and how local people in rural villages have found ways to adapt and life with their environment, rather than trying to make arbitrary and detrimental changes against Nature. Without these lessons trips can never learn. As a result, you are likely to be biased to stagger from the media or peer that does not differ from children to learn bad habits, learning to unruly peers (ie, the so-called "bad influences") since they do not have the information they need to make smart decisions.

So, bearing in mind, we believe that the journey is an opportunity to test their theories and beliefs. You are bound to be faced with different people, different cultures, different ways of behavior, different beliefs and different environment. Often, this is contrary to what you are used to or that you have to think in advance of the trip. Thus travel broadens your horizons and makes you more open to the huge variety and diversity of the planet and its peoples. And, keeping an open mind about things, you are more likely to learn from these differences, and apply them in ways that would improve your own life (and, I hope, and others). And in the process you will develop a greater respect for other people, while accepting differences and not to move away from the people.


Perhaps one of the most important things you have done for us traveling – is to give us a greater sense of perspective. If you travel, you padvyargaetsesya a wider range of experiences. Thus, you have a wider library of experience and knowledge that need to go to if you are confronted with a new situation or a problem. Given our extensive library, we have the confidence to see the big picture, to solve problems, not to sweat the little things, believe in yourself and in what we know, better understand people better appreciate the nature and look at things more about & # 39 objective. And thanks to this awareness and self-confidence, we feel that we have passed the bar & # 39; EASURES (many of which were self-imposed) that we thought possible.

Travel in general (at least more awareness fueled types) is expensive, logically difficult and requires a lot of time, health and energy. However, we have learned to overcome the bar & # 39; EASURES to give a rich reward of knowledge obtained as a result. And it is through our own time, focused on the preparation and performance of the trip, we have overcome those mental bar & # 39; EASURES that, as a rule, first of all prevent people from getting there; coming up with excuses such as too expensive, too complicated, too much time for planning and so on. In this sense, it makes you overcome complacency, go out into the real world and to acquire intangible things that make you a better person as a whole.

Due to the fact that we have learned, we are more able to filter and process information (which is why we do not obey to the fact that the press is pushing or said), and it is convenient to bring their work (and therefore our lives) to our core values ​​(my personal ethics – a sustainable future), we are less likely to hot air and hypocrisy when it comes to political issues, and we are more likely to be respectful to different people with different lifestyle (you never know what you can learn from them).

Indeed, the journey gave us the necessary tools (through exposure, education, and future), to take the measures necessary to improve not only our lives but also the lives of our children. We do not claim to know everything, but at least we can look at things in perspective and act accordingly.


Although we say that the journey – this is the best education you can get, we do not assume that you should abandon formal education, and it does not mean that it is the answer to all our problems. We are simply saying that the journey to teach you in a way that will bring you to a large, healthy and happy life, if you go with an open mind and the right attitude.

However, there are different types of travel, and we should note that not all of which promote learning. In fact, if you are traveling alone, in order to consume (as, for example, just have fun in the resorts, play golf or enjoy water sports (not that I condemn these activities), all without interacting with the locals and NOT feeling that this place has to offer in terms of this experience), then you only find out about consumption and little of the local culture, the environment and the people. You will not be able to expand your own horizons and gain travelers educational benefits.

Speaking of consumption, we recognize that the trip is not from the & # 39 are environmentally sustainable (that greenhouse gases (GHG), which flies in the upper atmosphere during the flight, the aircraft as close to energy efficiency, they are going to get, and environmentally friendly deposited waste water at resorts, not to mention the waste of plastic bottles). However, we think that if more people traveled to learn and see, or experience a truly different things, they would have been more understanding, we could put things in perspective and to take steps to make the world a better and more stable. So with that said, perhaps these same people will be more willing to find a way to travel (not to mention their own lifestyles) less effective, but at the same time to win the public (especially the one that you do not get at school) as a whole.

Regarding the school, I think that the trip can do wonders if you supplement your education secular impressions. Thus, you get the skills you need to make a living in the school, but you keep more of what you are studying (or even cast doubt on some of them) through their experiences and observations during the trip. In addition, it will also make you vote more intelligently, thereby creating the best leaders. I dare say that people who do not have expanded their horizons and have an open heart, could not stem the tide of corruption and mismanagement that led to many big problems that we see today in the world.

Thus, the journey – the best education you can get? As for us, you treat!

Although our journey led us to dive into their savings, thereby delaying the purchase of housing, which seeks to each (including our government, through its twisted tax laws), we would not have to sell them worldwide. We are not materially rich, but we have recalled the life and moments as well as some friends we met along the way. We again called to constantly open new locations, using waterfalls, as an excuse to see places far and near. We hope that we can continue this. After all, we never want to stop learning, improving yourself and changing the world.


Philippine tricycle – The Complete Guide

Tricycle – a motorcycle with a side car, or for carrying passengers or for transporting goods.

There is a third type of tricycle – Tricycle pedal or pedykab. It's just a motorcycle equipped with a lateral carriage.

Tricycles, which are commonly referred to as trick (pronounced "three"), became another Filipino icon.

Initially they worked on small roads where jeeps and buses are prohibited, but today you will find a technique everywhere, even on the national highways. But they are not allowed on expressways (toll roads).

danger road

It tricycles (and jeeps) made sure that a trip to the Philippine highways were so slow. Trickey, and often pedykaby just put together a snail's pace, often in fast lane bypass, ignoring the blast of horns from other drivers who want to overtake.

And this trick often leads to head-on collisions of drivers who do not have the patience to spud and carefully. It all comes back to the main road rules here – "It is possible, right!" – tricks and fit the bottom of the stairs, only one peradavine on dogs, cats, Sugar and pedestrians.

Through a combination of SUV and the trick on the highway, the ride from the city of San Fernando, La Union, in Angeles can often takes four hours – is the average speed of only 45 kilometers per hour.

legal requirements

Passenger trick has a capacity up to five persons, including the driver. However, quite often you'll see Tricky that carry up to 10 passengers, some on the roof, in other zatykayutstsa stroller, and more – on the seat behind the driver, one on the fuel tank in front of the driver, and the other hanging stage and back trick.

In the province of La Union Trickey must be in color. In Baang Tricky area all blue; further to the north of the city of San Fernando they are white; Still further to the north of San Juan they are red; in Baknotana are orange, and Balaoana – bright pink. There are many tricycles have two seats – one directed forward, and the other back.

Trics can pick up passengers only in their local area, but may leave the passengers in any region.

hire Tric

Rental trick reminiscent of hiring a taxi – you hire the whole vehicle, and not just the seat as in zhypni.

Always negotiate on the cost of the trip before you enter. Just ask the driver if your destination know, and then ask how much. Tricky driver will often say "to you." If so, just quote what you think is a fair price. In most cases, it will take your price, but if this does not work, you can talk more, or just go out and try another driver.

And do not pay for the trick until you have reached your destination.

When injected into the trick watch his head. Some Tricky have strange decorations in the interior. Most of tights has a vertical backrest, often unbuttoned and without the support of the lower back. It can be very uncomfortable, especially on bumpy roads.

Once on board, hang. Depending on the condition of the road and speed trick you probably will find very hypercritical of experience: the head is often props up a metal roof. You can always ask the driver to slow down, but it's usually a waste of words.

tricycle choice

Despite the lower part of the drive to trohkolah, I go for at least two each day, usually to places where can not get Zhypni. But I am selective in the choice of tricks and I know many of the local drivers. I have a cell phone number and call them to pick me up. Several drivers have become very good friends.

If you find a driver with a good trio, and that is also a good driver, I suggest you ask him a cell phone number. Most gladly give it to you.

Trykavaya safety

If you have luggage, try to put it in the shop, so you can keep an eye on him. A friend of mine once hired tricks in Tacloban airport. The driver put the bags on the rear rack. When they & # 39; riding, another guy jumped on the seat behind the driver, and began to talk with his friend.

It seemed to be a friendly conversation, and before the destination of the friendly guy said goodbye and jumped.

The location of my friend found that by talking, man dug up the luggage and valuables handed the engineer, who was behind him. Caution!


Stairway to Havana – Softball Diplomacy and Yankee prospects (Part 1)

Arriving in the capital

Late night flight from Cancun to Havana was aboard a passenger plane "Aero Mexico", built by the Dutch "Fokker-100", which is likely to have been in service since the late 1980s. It was spacious and quiet, and the air travelers was a new feature. About 45 minutes of flight hours of bilingual & # 39; waking passengers prepared to approach and then something was said about the "fumigatsyyu" I did not catch. I asked one passenger, what it means, and before he could answer, I saw other passengers trying to cover your nose and mouth collars, scarves and hands as heavy chemical mist that blurred at us from the upper compartments. It seems that the Cuban government has insisted that any cargo that comes from Mexico, should be sprayed with disinfectant before it be allowed to land. Apparently, the passengers are also considered cargo.

None of us knew what to expect when around 11 pm local time at the airport José Martí, our group of 24 Americans arrived in Havana. A 20-minute shuttle to the hotel did not show much interest and landscapes; the city was only dimly lit spreading functional sodium streetlights. However, through the window of the bus could be seen billboards and murals – all brightly painted slogans that proclaim the blessing of unity, party, socialism and revolution. Whether it was by design that even in the late hours, when it was dark and clogged on board the message about "Revolution" could still be so nice to see a shadow on the streets?

The hotel in which we stayed, was exposed as a four star, but the appearance and lobby looked clean and modern, but the trip to the room and found a worn stained carpets, patching, unpainted walls and the unmistakable smell of mold. The consistent water pressure in the building were injured, and the bed was hard as a picnic table, but other than that, it was comfortable dwelling. After 18-hour journey, I spent my first night in Havana in a calm drowsiness.

The next morning, looking out of the window of the 3rd floor, I was surprised to see how close the destroyed Old Havana. In every direction I saw buildings blackened by decades of mold, in various conditions of decay or destruction of almost and still lived. Laundry hung on clothes lines improvised from the balconies of the buildings, which would otherwise have been abandoned or condemned. It took me a minute to realize what I see: it was the capital of the nation in which half a century has not been repaired, washed and did not even have a place of any non-governmental city structure, which was dated 1959, I realized that I was far away from Starbucks. It was Cuba. This communist dictatorship of the Third World, with the last remnants of the Cold War, which I learned in school, which until recently led the best-known (and has long lived by) bearded revolutionary Marxist in the world, the very old Fidel. Suspected that looking at the spectacular, but spoiled the architecture that, due to my surprise and excitement in the weeks prior to this trip, I may have too romanticized this adventure. And not knowing exactly what I get here in the stomach there is an undesirable stimulation. When I looked at the narrow lane where the front of a small, dirty market formed a morning shopper, I wondered, I'll be back to the airport the next day, moving my privileged ass grynga to California, I'm sorry, I drove up to this depressing place. Fortunately, this gloomy impression on my part would be only a foretaste of failure and resolve soon. I would have quickly found a comfort zone in these foreign surroundings, and instead of my experiences have formed a strange look and a lasting impression about the country and people.

softball diplomacy

I was part of Cuba as a member of a team of senior softball US / Cuba, which consists of 13 players, "older", starting with the youngest (58 years) and older (76). We were scheduled to play a series of 4 games against senior Cuban counterparts. During our visit to Cuba was not a senior softball league, so we did not know exactly who or how many different teams will play and under what conditions. We just know when we got there. The excursion was organized as a kind of benevolence, the practice of the gulf formed by the late Bob Weinstein, then president of USA-Kuba, LLC and founder of US – Cuba Sports Experiences. Last year, Bob brought to Cuba other US softball teams to his untimely death, but this was the first "big" team, which was formed solely for the purpose of a trip to Cuba to play softball. We do not have All-Star team in any way, but simply a collection of fans sobichnyh time, inclination and finances for the trip. Before on the porch & # 39 teams will play one or two of practice, but we realized that we make more ambassadorial harness than a competitive softball team. Our group managed to pack an additional 250 pounds of clothes, medicines and personal items that we planned to distribute while we were there, making this trip a combination hurricane relief with sport and adventure.

For our first game we came out of our bus on the "field of sports practice," near the stadium Juan Ella in the outer harbor and passed through an empty area to the softball field. Most of the activities stopped in the park, and the locals looked at the Americans when we moved slowly, two hundred yards to the dugout visitors wearing hats and knitted products and the United States and Cuba were carrying bags of equipment. The Cuban team warmed up when we arrived and looked at us warily. We put a big smile on his face impatient and quickly introduced themselves, creating pictures and expressed their gratitude and satisfaction for participating in this event. When they saw that we no longer stand on the friendship and camaraderie than fierce competition, the collective nervousness and self-restraint, which we found quickly gave way to friendliness and enthusiasm. The ceremony was held before the first game, and a representative of the Cuban Softball Federation gave a description of this issue as an important step in maintaining the goodwill between sporting countries. We have handed over the Cuban Olympic pins in exchange for a commemorative pins that we gave them. We felt a true communication between us and the Cubans, and the smiles and expressions we saw on their faces, we could say that they, too, felt it.

We learned that the Cuban squad, in which we will play, has been successfully compiled, as a senior softball in Cuba was still unheard of. In fact, the idea of ​​the league, which was comprised of players far beyond the premiership & # 39; er minister, was … well, a stranger to them. On the surface they looked like a rag group of elderly Cuban gentleman, which were uniforms, that they had to keep up with the 60s-70s, judging by their faded, worn-out conditions. Not all of them were baseball gloves or broken, so we shared with them what we had, and these exchanges were carried out between the equipment supply.

If the Cubans took to the field, all of the opinion that they can be easily perceived as competitors quickly disappeared. They performed on the clear principle, making a few mistakes in defense and obviously proud of their work. Improper throwing or missed the cutoff to attract the wrath of colleagues. Later we found out that most members of the team at one time in his youth played organized baseball in Cuba, and some of them even got into the national team of Cuba. baseball is national sport in Cuba, football is not on the ratings and participation. The game itself – a favorite topic for lively debate in city parks and the baseball season is accompanied by nationalist enthusiasm, so this dedication to the sport affected the Cuban games. We have four games, but went only three because Hurricane Paloma crossed the center of the island at the time of our visit, bringing rain and winds to the western edge of Cuba, resulting in one of our competitions was canceled were planned. In all three matches, we won, but, under the terms of the unprecedented circumstances, the results were respected by the slow steps and standards have been unimportant. After the last game, our organizers arranged to deliver a couple of beers in our dugout – an act that is strictly prohibited under normal circumstances, but on this occasion this procedure was obviously canceled – and we all stuck and laughed, jumped a few cold, posed for pictures and exchanged uniforms, sweatshirt, gloves, hats and other storage items. Two players I met, brought the program to the international competitions, in which they played when they were young. They had to share with us, and it was very touching to get something that was very dear to them. I asked the Cuban players to make signings in the covers of these programs, and they are all happy to have committed. In this amazing atmosphere of brotherhood and respect it felt that the "normal" relationship between the US and Cuban citizens can be, if the political gulf between us somehow disappear.

After our series on the Cuban Softball Federation met with the senior officials of the American Association of softball, who joined us on the trip and together discussed the possibility of the formation of the Major League in Cuba. We are happy to think that our trip and experience can become the springboard needed to form a league for these outstanding Cuban players. As it turns out, the Cuban Federation later announced that next year in Havana will be played the first annual US-Cuban senior softball classic, which will feature four new Cuban senior softball team. Thus, it turns out that the idea of ​​their own League has become a reality for seniors Kubanos when they again come out on the field to play softball, or say in Cuba: "Las Grandes Pelotas".


Pearl, shiny marine beauty

Each time about what was going on in this article, in my head switched on "built-in music player", and one of the most famous songs Reggae end of 1960 begins to play. This is the song that opens and warms the hearts of all those who in times of Eddy Grant's "Baby Come Back", Dezmanda Decker "You Can Get It If You Real Want" and Tony Tribe "Red, Red, Wine" opened a world of love and made their the first verses of & # 39; serious love relationship with his "sole and unique." Do you remember those times and his first verses of & # 39; serious love affair? The song that is currently playing in my head – "Black Pearl". Do you hear that? "Black Pearl, dear girl, let me put you where you belong, because I love you." Well, this article is also about black pearls, but of a different kind of black pearls and it is not limited to them. "

Burma, a country that I call home for more than 25 years, once played a prominent role in the global pearl industry, and some of the largest and most valuable pearls in the world were found in the waters of the Burmese coast. However, since 15 years, Burma once again on the stage of international business with pearls and gaining success with its unique silver and gold South Sea pearl cultures.

Burmese pearl industry history begins in 1954 with the Japanese K. Takashima, who founded a joint venture between the Japanese company "South Sea Pearl Company Ltd." and "Combine dipping and growing Burmese pearls" as a local partner. In the same year in the archipelago Mergen began production cultured pearls in the South Sea with peaks Pinctada, and the first pearl harvest took place in 1957. This harvest was a great success. Pearl was among a group of the best cultural gems of the South Sea, and reached the highest price. For several years, Burma has earned itself a good reputation as a manufacturer of pearl high quality crops in the South Seas, and was the highest of the world group of countries that produce South Sea kultyvnuyu pearls until 1983, when, as is believed, as a result of bacterial infection, pearl pearlescent oyster in Burma It was almost completely extinguished. Burma pearl industry recovers very slowly, and over a decade it remained small and pearl quality is quite low production of pearls. However, since 2001 in the production of cultured pearls in Burma Burma is gaining momentum and the number of high-quality cultivation of pearls growing.

Now, at the beginning of 2016, there are 1 state-owned, private 4 local companies and 4 foreign companies (joint ventures), representing the Burmese Birman industry. They are cultured pearls mainly on the islands of the Mergui Archipelago and the island of Pearl and are on a good way to regain the reputation of Burma and help the country to play an increasingly important role as a pearl producer in the global market of cultured pearls South Sea. Not necessarily in terms of quantity, but certainly in terms of premium quality. Burmese companies with pearls have become more and more attention in the international market of pearls.

Well, let's focus on the main theme, and the star of this article: The Pearl.

At the beginning of this article, I spoke of love associated with pearls, and pearls do something different for the expression of love. However, the story & # 39; appearance of pearls can be not just love, but – imagining that pearl, which produces pearls, can feel pain – at least in the beginning, but the history of pain, because it has become something that does not belong. the living tissue of the mollusk. In other words, pearls – is a result of protection from the painful enemy attack. It's like a rose thorn lodged in the thumb; oh! That's how life pearl begins with something manages to get into the clam shell and violence enter into his soft tissue. That "something" may be, for example, larvae of the parasite or tiny sand grains.

Question: "What pearls?" Pearl – something relatively hard and is usually silvery-white, either round or irregular shape. Its core – is "attacker" which mollusc which produces pearls first plated pearl bag around which it is caused microscopic layers of small crystals of calcium carbonate, called "mother of pearl" to distinguish foreign matter, called a "stimulus". . Between the layers, which are part of the pearls are kanhilinu organic compound layers, which glues them and separates them simultaneously. The process of obtaining these pearlescent layers never ends, which means that the nacre older, the greater the number of its layers and thus the more. This is the answer to the question.

"Is that all?" You may ask. Well, basically, yes, but on "the pearl" of course there is much more. Keep reading and you will know. Let's look at the history of pearls and pearls, and back to the beginning.

Perhaps in 500 BC (possibly earlier), people focus more on the content than on the wraps, and began to appreciate the beauty of pearls, pearl shells than manufacturers. Thus, they have placed the best of pearls on a par with "jewels" and give them a high value in terms of intangible (strength and beauty) and materially (wealth).

Pearls are also called "Sea Stones", but, unlike any other gemstones, pearls from the & # 39 is the product of a living being. That is, the pearl – it is the only "gem" of organic origin, it is thus gemmolagi classify pearls in general: "colored gemstones organic origin." A pearl – unique "gems" that do not require cutting and grinding – easy cleaning – before the show all its beauty.

Then pearls existed only in the form of natural, which is also called wild pearls. Thus, they were very rare and a & # 39 were a symbol of power, wealth and beauty, demanded royalties and nyavznagarodami who could afford and are willing to pay for them astronomical prices. In other words, the demand for pearls – either alone, as a so-called collectors item or as a piece of jewelry – was very large, and the offer is very low, which made for a special category of pearls vysokamashtabnyya luxury items and trade them with pearls extremely lucrative business. Hunting the three strongest motivations of humankind – to be rich, powerful and beautiful – began hunting for pearls of buyers and sellers.

Let's take a second, closer look at the pearls and their natural creators. Basically, almost all kinds of shellfish shells (even some species of snails!) Can no matter accommodated them fresh water, such as rivers and lakes, or salt water pools, such as the oceans, creating a pearl that is called the process "lime nodules . & # 39;. However, the vast majority of these pearls have no value, except for the ability in terms of the collector or scholar exception to this rule with the & # 39 are, for example, "Blue pearl" envelopes and "Pink pearl" from seashells. with shells.

Differences between the void and precious pearls are coupled to their size, weight, shape, brightness, color (including rainbow perlamutrasts and light), and surface condition. This is the criteria that define a & # 39 is a high-quality pearl gem and can not get the highest price. Only this category of pearls is of interest to a long chain of those involved in pearl business from pearl divers to the seller of pearls on the basis of suggestions and, of course, the customer on the basis of demand.

Those pearls belonging to the first group of high-quality quality of pearls, created only a few types of mussel and / or oyster pearls. Freshwater pearls are created by family members & # 39; and freshwater mussels "Unionidae", a pearl of water – family members of pearl oysters "Pteriidae".

By 1928, when the company Mitsubishi Company / Japan created the first set of cultural pearls and pearls presented on the market, only natural pearls were on the market. This helped to keep the number of commercially valuable pearls small, and the prices are extremely high. This is especially true of the "ideal" pearls that are perfectly round and reached the highest price.

Because such statements as "high value" or "high price" is relative and not in the sense, I feel the need to attach to it a number. The following example will give you an idea of ​​the value of pearls in "dakulturnyya" times pearls. Double double strand size 55 plus 73 (of 128) round natural pearl jeweler from P & # 39; EPA Cartier in 1917 was estimated at $ 1 million. Given the average annual inflation rate of 3.09% the current cash value of pearls will be 20.39 million dollars! I am sure that after a deep breath, you have a very good idea of ​​what values ​​I'm talking about in relation to pearls, especially when it comes to natural pearls with a & # 39; appearance of cultivation of pearls. And natural pearls, which are for them, there will always be the most precious and valuable, even in the era of pearl kultyvuemaga. Why? This is because these pearls are pure nature and absolutely unique, especially if we add the factor of antiquity.

With the commercialization of the British biologist William Savile Kent and Japanese Tokyo Nishykava patented method of obtaining pearls pearl cultivation has revolutionized and has experienced the most dramatic changes. Cultured pearls, based on the new process, developed in Japan, and changed dramatically. Nothing more will never be as it was.

Culturing pearls made possible the mass production of "individual" pearls of the highest quality. As the "How" is kept secret and is not allowed to make it accessible to foreigners, it also gave Japan a global monopoly of pearl cultivation, so the dominance and control of the pearl industry in the world, which, among other things, allowed the manipulation of pearls prices by controlling the number of available pearls; as well as dyyamentny syndicate De Beers controlled the world diamond market. Prices fell, and the purchase of pearls, which was available to the presence of culturing pearls only for the lucky few, it became possible for a very large number of people who have been in a financial position; demand for pearls exploded, and the Japanese pearl industry began to flourish and brought huge profits from direct sales of a large number of cultural pearls, licenses and shares in business ventures with foreign companies. Currently, this has changed and there are more civilized countries, which produce pearls; Some, such as China, from time to time sell cultured pearls (especially freshwater pearls, the price of 10% of the natural pearls, which allows almost anyone to buy pearls and / or pearl jewelry. However, since the proposal was never satisfy the demand for pearls prices will always be high enough to ensure that the business remains with pearls "big business."

Different types of pearls

Pearls are classified as Akoya pearl, pearl South Sea, Taitsyana pearl, pearl and freshwater Mabe-pearl or blisters (half pearls). In this article I will deal first of all, the first three of them, since these pearls are the most valuable, and for this reason, those who have the greatest commercial value.

Akoya pearls

Pearls Akoya oyster is created from the family Pteriidae, which the Japanese call Akoya rods. The Latin name for it – Pinctada fucata martensii. Many translation Akoya name into English, as well as the value of Akoya unknown words.

Akoya Pearl was the first in the history of the cultured pearl. With a value from 2.4 to 3.1 in / from 6 to 8 cm oyster Akoya – the smallest oyster which produces pearls. Accordingly, its small pearls whose size var & # 39; iruetstsa depending on the age of 2 to 12 mm. The average diameter of Akoya pearls is 8 mm. Akoya pearls with a large diameter of 10 mm are very rare and sold at high prices.

Since seeding when Akoya pearls ready for harvest, it takes at least 10 months. Normally oysters in the water up to 18 months before the harvest. Akoya oyster during the lifetime of 1 produces pearls. After that she had a good pearl, which is used as the donor tissue.

The shape of pearl can be round, mostly round, slightly round, round, pavbarochnay and baroque, and its color can be white, black, pink, cream, medium cream, dark cream, blue, gold or gray. Pearls have a different sound, mostly white, and gloss extremely brilliant, second only to shine pavdnovamorskih pearls. Pearl Akoya cultivated mainly off the coast of Japan and China.

The ideal water temperature for oysters Akoya is from 15 to 23 ° C / 59 and 73.4 Fahrenheit.

South Sea Pearl

Pearls of the South Sea oyster is created from Pteriidae family. Pearl oyster white, silver or gold. The Latin name for it – Pinctada maxima.

Cultured Pearls South Sea – one of the rarest and most valuable because of the cultural pearls. The size of the South Sea oyster -. To 13 in / 32.5 cm The world's largest oyster that produces pearls. Accordingly big pearls whose dimensions var & # 39; iruyutstsa depending on the age of between 8 and 22 + mm, but the average diameter of the pearls South Sea is 15 mm and the South Sea pearl cultivation of more than 22 mm in diameter resembles State lottery jackpot.

It took no less than 1.5 years from the date of sowing, while South Sea pearls are ready for harvesting for the first time. Normally, oysters are in the water for 2 to 3 years before they are going to get larger pearls. Oyster lifetime produces 2 to 3 pearls. After that he was too old and provided that he has created good pearls used as donor tissue.

Form pearls may be circular, semicircular, Baroque, pavbarochnay, drop, button, oval, circular and annular, and its color may be white and silver, white-pink, blue and white, light cream, champagne (average) cream) and gold. However, the most popular of the & # 39 are silver and gold. Pearl of the South Sea is very bright with a light satin sheen.

Pearl South Sea cultured mainly from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Cultural producing country South Sea pearl – Australia, New Guinea, the Philippines, Indonesia and Burma.

The ideal water temperature for oysters South Sea ranges from 73,4 ° to 89,6 ° F / 23 ° C to 32 ° C.

Tahitian pearls

Tahitian pearls are created from oysters Pteriidae family, which is called the pearl oyster. The Latin name for it – Pinctada margaritifera.

Tahitian pearls are commonly known as black pearls, are a group of rare, the most valuable pearls kultyvuemyh and more in demand. Black pearl oyster has a size up to 12 cm / 30 cm. The second largest pearl oyster in the world. Accordingly, its large pearls whose size var & # 39; iruetstsa depending on the age of between 8 and 18 mm, but the average diameter of the pearls Taitsyana is 13 mm.

It took no less than 1.5 years from the time of sowing until the Tahitian pearl is ready for harvesting for the first time. Normally, oysters are in the water for 2 to 3 years before they are going to get larger pearls. Oyster lifetime produces 2 to 3 pearls. After that she got good pearls used as donor tissue.

The shape of pearl can be round, slightly round, semicircular, guzikovay and pear, drop, oval, pavbarochnay, baroque and ring.

Although pearl Taitsyana called the "Black Pearl", most of them do not really black. Their color Var & # 39; iruetstsa from dark anthracite, charcoal gray, silver-gray to dark blue and dark green, with each color has a specific undertones and overtones of green, pink, blue, silver and even yellow.

Luster of Tahitian pearls with very high shiny and bright images.

Cultivated from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, but primarily off the coast of Tahiti and the French Polynesian island. However, there were reports of Pinctada margarytyfe in the Red Sea off the coast of Alexandria (Egypt) and Calabria (Italy).

The ideal water temperature Black Pearl Oyster is from 73,4 ° to 84,2 ° F / 23 ° C-29 ° C.

freshwater pearl

The main difference kultyvuemyh pearls with sea water and cultivation of freshwater pearls is that unlike kultyvuemyh pearls saltwater kultyvuemyya freshwater pearls are not bead and clear pearl, so they called the pearl culturing NOT. It is, however, no longer applies. Since then, as the pearl of Minsk, the official name of "Edison Pearl", was presented by the Chinese market in January 2011, freshwater pearls are now also have a very beautiful representative in the "cultured pearl beads."

Freshwater pearls without beads created 3 types of mussels Unionidae family. Адзін з іх называецца трохкутным ветразем мідыі з лацінскай назвай Hyriopsis cumingii, другі называецца біва-жэмчугам з лацінскай назвай Hyriopsis schlegelii, а трэці мае лацінскую назву Christaria plicata і называецца пеўня Міндаль.

Бісерныя прэснаводныя жамчужыны альбо, як іх правільна называюць, «нуклеіраваныя прэснаводныя жэмчуг з целам», вырабляюцца гібрыднай формай Hyriopsis cumingii і Hyriopsis cumingii.

Прэснаводныя жамчужыны ўсё больш запатрабаваны. Іх памеры вар'іруюцца ад малюсенькіх насенных жамчужын дыяметрам ад 1 да 2 мм да 15 мм і больш.

Звычайна праходзіць 3-5 гадоў з моманту пасеву свініны да таго часу, пакуль прэсная вада з мёдам не будзе сабрана. Некаторыя застаюцца ў вадзе да 7 гадоў, каб атрымаць больш буйныя жэмчуг. Аднак гэты павольны рост жэмчугу больш чым кампенсуецца тым, што адна мідыя можа вырабляць да 40+ жэмчугу адначасова. Звычайна мідыі вырабляюць 1 камплект жэмчугу пры жыцці. Пасля гэтага яна атрымала добрыя жэмчугі, якія выкарыстоўваюцца ў якасці донара тканін.

Для атрымання бісернай культуральнай прэснаводнай жамчужыны, жамчужыны Эдысана, спатрэбіцца 4 гады, каб ператварыцца ў жэмчуг дыяметрам 15 + мм у гібрыдзе Hyriopsis cumingii / Hyriopsis cumingii. Мідыі могуць вырабляць толькі адну жэмчуг за адзін раз.

Форма жэмчугу можа быць круглай, злёгку круглай ці амаль круглай, круглай, паўкруглай, кнопкай, манетай, грушай ці кропляй, авальнай, паўбарочнай, барочнай і кольцавай і любой разнавіднасці няправільнай формы, напрыклад "рысавай крысці" .

Іх колер вар'іруецца ад белага да натуральных пастэльных тонаў, такіх як шампанскае, лаванда, ружовы, сіні і кожны адценне паміж імі.

Бляск прэснаводнай жамчужыны высокі з яркімі адлюстраваннямі.

Прэснаводныя жамчужыны культывуюцца ва ўсім свеце, але ў першую чаргу на кітайскім, японскім і значна меншай ступені ў азярках і рэках ЗША. Найбуйнейшым у свеце вытворцам прэснаводных жэмчугу з'яўляецца Кітай.

Ідэальная тэмпература вады для прэснаводных мідый залежыць ад спецый паміж 68 o F- 82,4 o F / 20 ° C-28 ° C.

Іншыя віды жэмчугу

Жамчужына Кейшы

Жамчужыну Кейшы можна сустрэць як у марскіх, так і ў марскіх малюсках. Яны з'яўляюцца вынікам выкідвання раздражняльнікаў ад вустрыц / мідый да таго моманту, як жамчужына цалкам пакрыла імплантат перламутрам. У гэтым выпадку раздражняльнік аддзяляецца ад жамчужнага мяшка і развіваецца вольная форма жамчужыны без ядраў. Жамчужына кейшы, як вынікае з назвы (на японскай мове азначае, што "кейсі" на маленькай мове) азначае маленькі, выраблены з чыстага перламутру і няправільнай формы. Колер жэмчугу Keishi вар'іруецца ад серабрыста-чыстага белага да серабрыста-шэрага і паміж імі разнастайнымі варыяцыямі.

Мабе Пэрл or Блістэрскі жэмчуг

У адрозненне ад іншых жэмчугаў, якія растуць у жывой тканіне вустрыцы, жамчужына вустрыцы Мабе мае звычку прымацоўвацца да ўнутранай абалонкі вустрыцы і расці там як «палоўка жамчужыны», што робіць іх падобнымі на пухір, што ёсць альтэрнатыўная назва гэтага жэмчугу "Блістэр жамчужына". Калі жэмчуг нарыхтаваны, ён па-майстэрску выразаецца са шкарлупіны, а пасля выдалення імплантата полая частка запаўняецца адмысловым воскам да таго, як задняя частка па-майстэрску дабіваецца перламутрам. Што тычыцца кветак, то яны ахопліваюць пераважна шырокі спектр белага і прывабнага серабрыста-пастэльных тонаў.

Цяпер пытанне ў тым, што менавіта гэтыя культурныя жэмчугі, якія аказалі такі ўплыў на разбурэнне зямлі на сусветнай жамчужынай прамысловасці?

Культурныя жамчужыны

Важна ведаць і разумець, што культываваны жэмчуг не з'яўляецца штучнай жамчужынай або імітацыяй. Наадварот, культываваная жэмчуг – гэта натуральная жэмчуг, калі ж жамчужына з'яўляецца вынікам таго ж натуральнага працэсу, які адбываецца ў пустыні; іншародны прадмет трапляе ў шкарлупіну вустрыцы або мідыі, знаходзіцца ў жывой тканіны вустрыцы і мідыі, абараняецца ахоўны механізм абалонкі малюскаў і парушальнік заключаецца ў пласты карбаната кальцыя і канхіёліна. Канчатковы вынік – жамчужына.

Тое, пра што мы гаворым, параўноўваючы прыродныя з культываванымі жэмчугам, на самай справе дзве рэчы. Па-першае, падзея, якая выклікае існаванне жэмчугу, і, па-другое, канчатковы вынік гэтай падзеі. Сутнасць заключаецца ў тым, што адрозненні паміж натуральнай і культурнай жамчужынай вельмі малыя і абмяжоўваюцца падзеямі, якія ініцыююць развіццё жамчужыны.

Для гэтага артыкула я хачу пагаварыць пра тое, на што абалонены малюск адказвае стварэннем жамчужыны ў рэпрадукцыйным плане і сказаў, што розніца паміж "натуральным" і "культурным" адлюстроўвае "спосаб апладнення". . У пустыні трапленне раздражняльніка адбываецца выпадкова і без удзелу людзей, тады як на жамчужынай ферме гэта адбываецца з удзелам людзей пры дапамозе хірургічнай аперацыі, вядомай як "прышчэпка". Фразавана ў размнажэнні мы можам назваць гэта «штучнае апладненне». Я коратка растлумачу працэс прышчэпкі крыху пазней. Усё, што вынікае з устаўкі раздражняльніка, гэта значыць працэс развіцця жамчужыны ў вустрыцы, цалкам натуральны.

Магчымасць вырабляць культурныя жэмчуг – гэта адначасова і жамчужная вустрыца, і, вядома, яе ўладальнікі ў першую чаргу атрымліваюць вялікую карысць. Перавагі вустрыц складаюцца ў тым, што яны патрэбныя для таго, каб сталець і жыць у кантраляванай асяроддзі, у якой яны ў значнай ступені абаронены ад хваробы і прыродных ворагаў, а перавагамі ўладальнікаў вустрыц з'яўляецца тое, што ён можа, напрыклад. вызначыць, колькі і якія жэмчугі ён хоча вырабляць, калі вустрыцы-гаспадары пачынаюць ствараць грушы, якую форму жамчужыны будуць мець, якога колеру і бляску будуць мець і якога памеру будуць, гэта значыць, калі яны будуць нарыхтоўваюць.

Велізарныя перавагі па вытворчасці культурных жэмчугу ў параўнанні з дайвінгам для дзікіх вустрыц у раёнах з дрэвамі вустрыц у надзеі знайсці камерцыйна каштоўную прыродную жамчужыну ўжо павінны стаць вельмі відавочнымі. Па статыстыцы існуе ў сярэднім адзін таварны жэмчуг у 1000 дзікіх вустрыц. Гэта азначае, што калі вам не вельмі, вельмі пашанцуе, вырвацца з жаргоннай жаргоны, тыпу "джэкпот-у-адным", вам, хутчэй за ўсё, прыйдзецца знайсці тысячы прыродных жамчужынных вустрыц, адчыніць і пры гэтым забіць іх раней вы можаце знайсці адзін камерцыйна каштоўны жэмчуг выгляду, якога вы шукаеце. Гэта вельмі рызыкоўная, клопатная, працаёмкая, затратная і ў доўгатэрміновай перспектыве шкодная для навакольнага асяроддзя справа. Менавіта таму быў распрацаваны працэс культывацыі жэмчугу.

Усё пачалося з брытанскага біёлага брытанскага біёлага Уільяма Савіла-Кента (1845-1908), які ў 1894 г. дасягнуў поспеху ў распрацоўцы спосабу атрымання культываванага жэмчугу, і японскага марскога біёлага японскага доктара Токічы Нішыкава (1874-1909), японскага цесляра Японіі Г-н Tatsuhei Mise (1880-1924) і японскі пастаўшчык агародніны г-н Кокічы Мікімота (1858-1954), які запатэнтаваў і ў далейшым развіваў і камерцыялізаваў працэс вытворчасці культурных жэмчугу, які стаў называцца "Маці жэмчугу" (не зблытаць з перламутрам, вустрыцы і мідыі высцілаюць вантробы ракавін) «Жамчужына Акоя». Натуральныя жэмчугі працягвалі б упрыгожваць толькі нешматлікія прывілеі, калі б не вынаходлівасць трох японскіх мужчын

У 1902 г. Тацухэй Мізэ імплантаваў 15 000 малюскаў з ядрамі свінцу і срэбра, а праз два гады сабраў невялікія круглявыя жэмчугі. У 1907 г. ён атрымаў першы ў гісторыі японскі патэнт на выраб круглявага жэмчугу.

Прыблізна ў гэты ж час доктар Нішыкава пачаў высейваць вустрыц з дапамогай малюсенькіх залатых і срэбных ядраў. Яго працэс таксама даў дробныя круглявыя жэмчугі. Ён падаў заяўку на патэнт, які быў абмежаваны працэсам імплантацыі, які быў незвычайна падобны на Мізэ. Паколькі два працэсы былі практычна аднолькавымі, ён стаў называцца метадам Мізэ-Нішыкава.

Вырошчванне жэмчугу

Тое, што ідзе рука аб руку з атрыманнем культывуемых жэмчугаў альбо, дакладней, фармулюецца, з'яўляецца неад'емнай часткай агульнага працэсу найбольш эфектыўнага і эфектыўнага атрымання культываванага жэмчугу – гэта вырошчванне жэмчугу. У рэшце рэшт, гэта не мае сэнсу ныраць для натуральных вустрыц, якія вырабляюць жамчужыну, якія часта можна сустрэць на глыбіні ад 60 да 85 футаў, збіраць іх паасобку, выносіць на паверхню, чысціць, прышчапляць. іх, пазначце, вярніце іх у ложачку вустрыц, каб толькі потым зноў пагрузіцца за імі, каб сабраць жамчужыны. Я лічу, што мы ўсе згодныя з тым, што выкарыстанне гэтага спосабу было б самым неэфектыўным і неэфектыўным спосабам вырабіць культыўныя жэмчуг. Такім чынам, правільны спосаб вядзення гаспадаркі – гэта перламутравыя вустрыцы. Але як бы шмат было выраблена і тэхнічна ўдасканалена вырошчванне жэмчугу і выседжванне, інакш, асабліва ў апошнія 10 гадоў, гэта ўсё яшчэ застаецца рызыкоўнай задачай і залежыць столькі ад майстэрства, колькі залежыць ад поспеху. Чаму ўдача? Пашанцавала, бо існуе так шмат вельмі сур'ёзных прыродных і тэхнагенных пагроз, уласцівых жамчужынаму земляробству, якія цалкам ці, па меншай меры, у значнай ступені выйшлі з-пад кантролю чалавека. Прыкладамі гэтага з'яўляюцца экстрэмальныя змены тэмпературы вады, забруджванне вады сцёкавымі водамі як прамысловымі, так і бытавымі, такія захворванні, як выкліканае «чырвоным прылівам», незвычайныя моцныя навальніцы і рух вады, сілітацыя і некалькі прыродных драпежнікаў для жамчужных вустрыц, такіх як ігла шыпа. (зорная рыба, марскі агурок), бруханогія (слімакі і смоўжы), турбелярыі (плоскія чарвякі) і прамяні і васьміногі, проста назваць некалькі найбольш распаўсюджаных прыродных і чалавечых пагроз. Менавіта таму я раю вам не падманваць сябе, чытаючы наступныя кароткія апісанні. На паперы ўсё гучыць добра, але ўсё навокал не так проста, як можа здацца.

Вось як працуе жамчужнае земляробства на прыкладзе максімумаў Pinctada, якія вырабляюць культурныя жэмчугі Паўднёвага мора.

Адседжванне перламудрыш

Сучасная культываваная жамчужная прамысловасць па біялагічных і эканамічных прычынах у большай ступені захоўвае вустрычныя фермы з вылупляюцца вустрыцамі. Працэдура выседжвання пачынаецца з выбару для выседжвання падыходных перлаў з пустыні або з інкубацыйных вустрыц і заканчваецца гатоўнасцю вустрыц для атрымання жэмчугу. Пры выяўленні падыходных вустрыц для мужчын і жанчын іх змяшчаюць у нерастуючыя ёмістасці, напоўненыя салёнай вадой. Зараз тэмпература вады павышаецца, што прыводзіць у рух наступны працэс.

Мужчыны-вустрыцы стымулююць да нерасту, народкі стымулююць самак вустрыц выпускаць яйкі, яйкі апладняюць, аплодненыя яйкі збіраюць і выседжваюць у акварыумы з марской вадой, каб забяспечыць развіццё лічынак, калі лічынкі развіліся, іх падлічваюць, пераносяць і кормяць у чысціні танкі лічынкавай культуры Праз 22 дні лічынкі збіраюцца і пераносяцца ў рэзервуары з расселеным субстратам, каб лічынкі змацавалі сябе і перараслі ў плямы вустрыц. Пасля таго, як сплёт дасягнуў таўшчыні ракавіны мін. 6 мм змяшчаюць у дробную сетку ў якасці аховы для драпежнікаў і пераносяць у плыт, падвешаны ў акіянскай вадзе фермы. Вырошчваюцца больш дарослымі да дарослых, іх кладуць у вялікую сетку, калі яны вырастаюць да дарослых. Праз 2 гады вустрыцы гатовыя вырабіць жэмчуг і ўпершыню будуць прышчэплены.

Прышчэпка жамчужных вустрыц

Прышчэпка жамчужнай вустрыцы пачынаецца з выбару падыходнай дзікай або сельскагаспадарчай вустрыцы і заканчваецца яе вяртаннем у ваду, гэта значыць на ферму вустрыц. Гэтыя этапы: выбар правільнага перыяду для прышчэпкі, правільная падрыхтоўка вустрыцы для прышчэпкі (менш ежы, абязбольванне), падбор падыходнай тканіны для імплантата і прышчэпкі, прафесійнае выкананне хірургічнай аперацыі і правільнае наступны догляд за вустрыцай пасля аперацыі перад тым, як яе выпусціць назад у ваду. Гэты працэс з'яўляецца важным, бо хірургічная аперацыя з'яўляецца найбольш важнай яго часткай, бо ён вызначае не малую ступень смяротнасці вустрыц пасля аперацыі, адрыньванне імплантаванага ядра і агульную якасць канчатковага жэмчугу. Гэта значыць прышчэпка можа зрабіць гэта альбо зламаць.


Change the way you see your world!

& # 39; guys are organized daily routine. They rise early in the morning prayers, a bit of exercise and yoga before breakfast. Volunteers can get up when we like, but this morning I join the boys. After breakfast, I usually head to the library to prepare worksheets for class English. "- says Katrina sofa of their morning hours while volunteering in an orphanage in the center of Rajasthan, the south-western state of India.

Like her, thousands of volunteers have given their time and energy, ranging from two weeks to six months, to teach boys the basic English. She had come to travel in India, but found out about this opportunity, which would give it the best experience of India that she could ever. She jumped up and grabbed the offer.

& # 39; I loved my time at Bal Ashram (asylum). It's a great feeling, to teach children, you will find that if you are a & # 39; Ride, they also have much to teach you. Make volunteering a part of my travels meant that I was fortunate that part of India that tourists rarely see. This allows people to understand a little better, and truly appreciate the wonderful experience that will give you India! & # 39; she adds.

The need for enrichment in the orphanage is very high. They are full of edges, and the administration has staff who lacks the number and enthusiasm to enrich the boys in the orphanage. It is unlikely that the remaining energy after the daily work of the shelter.

The "Orphan Care" can change the lives of these young lives. Caring for children can be a variety of ways. No special skills are required frequently, as volunteers have to spend time on the game, reading, sports and the division of time with the kids. Your "time" – this is what kids want with the attention. They crave for themselves role models, which seek and try to be. Many of our host organization works a few officers, volunteers and attention gives children extra love that they need.

The mother of one of the volunteers from the United States during the program wrote: "Sarah went on the freedom of the children in the village of Virat Nagar, near Jaipur She loved children, and she felt warmth of the people and the beauty of India's daughter returned from the broader perspective, the most gratitude and.. completely new sense of purpose in life. "

Looking at things from under the gaze of absolute outsider, you will give a great contribution to move forward in life. This is an opportunity, along with many others, that are in stock and provide a great goal for all of us to live the life that we live. If only we could take some time and help those who do not, and at least give them a chance to see the world that they will never see.

Come, share your world with the world, you never see!